Domestic small ruminants and bighorn sheep
Follow up. Called the WADDL serology lab that was suppose to do the M.ova ELISA blood test today. The test is still not available. They say getting it going is their highest priority. The antigen they are looking for in the blood is "quite stable" in the frozen blood samples.
They confirmed that If the antigen is present all it shows is at some point the goat had MOVI. This test does not show any active shedding of MOVI in other words the goat cannot transmit the disease. A positive nasal swab demonstrates shedding and in this situation MOVI is transmissible
In order to prove the point that packgoats are low risk to BHS we would need a large number of MOVI negative packgoats from different herds repeatedly tested over time. We all have different management practices for our packgoats which means if our management practice change for any reason it would be reasonable to assume that it would not put our goats at risk for getting MOVI.
If the packgoat is negative today how are we to be sure it is negative at a later date?
Thanks for posting this Nancy!

That's great news to hear from a scientific lab that antigen just means they were exposed to MOVI at some point - not that they are shedding it. I'd love to get that in writing!

My 7 goats (2 aren't packgoats but are part of my herd) will have samples taken for the MOVI testing next week. I'm having my vet do it.
Goatberries Happen!
The antigen theory is common knowledge among health care providers, animals and people alike. The flu vaccine is an example of the antigen theory. We get the flu vaccine, a dead version of the anticipated flu bug. Our immune systems memorize this bug by way of making an antigen. It's an immune response that causes the pain at the injection site. If we are exposed to the flu bug our immune systems activate this specific memory cell, the antigen, and it fights the flu bug. If you tested us after the we got the flu vaccine shot we would have the antigen but could not ever give anyone the flu, we are not contagious, or in the goat world not "shedding" MOVI.
In essence it is in writing. I am interested to know if my packgoats ever had MOVI. I don't think in practice it would make any difference. Care would still need to be taken not to expose my goats to MOVI shedding goats before hiking in Bighorn Sheep source areas.
It would be interesting to know if you had a MOVI positive goat how long they are contagious.
Nancy, sorry to contradict - kind of,

the pain at the injection side of a vaccination comes from the injected aluminium salts which are added to get a bigger immune response. And there where at least in the past several vaccinations that caused the recipient to shed the virus and be infectious after receiving the vaccination (old polio vaccines f.e.).

Showing antigens means in most cases that you fought off an infection but in several diseases (like HIV or CAE) antigen presence also means that you have a slow acting, chronic form of the disease and are shedding the virus.

I haven't had time to read up on the specifics of MOVI, yet, so I can't say what would apply to a antigens after MOVI infection.
Sabine from Germany
[Image: zoVgi.gif]

That is interesting. I spoke to a person in the WADDL serology lab who was speaking in general terms but you are right about chronic diseases. I guess we need to find out specifically if MOVI is like a chronic disease. My understanding is your goat can have a positive blood antigen and a negative nasal swab and not be shedding. This MOVI thing is so new there are lots of questions we need to get answered.
Its actually both.
Pack Goat Prospects For Sale.

S.E. Washington (Benton City)
Any action I take will have to wait till after the peak delivery season. Averaging 65 hour work weeks doesnt leave time to do much of anything Smile
Pack Goat Prospects For Sale.

S.E. Washington (Benton City)
Nancy, it isn't too much trouble...could you please outline a "step-by-step" process for getting goats tested for MOVI?  I am assuming you will describe the "Nasal Swab" method.  If you could put it on this Forum, it would be very helpful.  Thanks--Saph
Saph,  Here are the directions Nancy forwarded to me from Dr. Maggie Highland.  The protocol was written by Dr. Highland.

Instructions for collecting nasal swabs for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae testing
1. Twist open the cylinder containing the swab (do not touch the end of swab) by firming gripping the colored cap with the “swabbing hand” and holding the tube/cylinder with the other hand.  Some swabs will have 2 swabs within the cylinder attached to the same cap (see images below), just remove and insert both swabs as follows….

2. Gently insert the swab (“cotton end”) deep into the nasal cavity of and twist/move around for approximately 10 seconds.  Insert all the way to the cap that the swabs are attached to.
o Live animals: swab inserts easiest if you keep it along the ventral (toward the lip) aspect of the nasal cavity.  Gentle twisting or slight in and out movements to collect the sample to AVOID CAUSING BLOOD ON SWAB.  If animal is cooperative, both nasal cavities should be swabbed with the same swab to ensure good amount of collection.
o Dead animals: Similar to live animals.  I realize it may be difficult to avoid blood on hunter collected animals, however if there is a side of the nose that is less bloody please swab that side only.  If the trachea is easily accessible (and not terribly bloody inside), you can use a second swab and swab along the wall of the inside of the trachea too and insert into the sample broth tube.  Samples can be collected up to several days following death (sooner is better, but I will test what I can).

3. Snuggly place the swab(s) back down into the plastic cylinder from which it(they) came.  

4. Please clearly label tubes as to indicate the date of collection and the species of animal from which the sample was collected, as well as location (ie. nearest town or reference spot), and animal ID # if applicable.  The area to write on is small, but try to include all information.

5. Place the tube at refrigerator temperature as soon as feasible.  And send in, preferable with an ice pack, for testing ASAP.  If there is a delay in sending beyond a day or 2, sample should be frozen and then shipped on dry ice, if possible

6. Optimally, hands could be washed between animals if concerned about which animal specifically is potentially carrying/shedding the bacteria
If specimens are being shipped to ADRU-ARS-USDA (Maggie Highland), I will provide you with a shipping label for overnight shipping (paid in full).
If samples are being sent elsewhere (ie. Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory), I recommend contacting the laboratory for best sample collection and shipment.

Protocol written by:
Maggie Highland
3003 ADBF
Washington State University
Pullman, WA 99164-6630
Office phone: 509-335-6327
Goatberries Happen!
Additional notes from Dr Besser at WADDL. The swab must be synthetic NOT COTTON. I do not understand the reason for this but this but is what I was told. I called my vet got the manufacture of the swab and catalog number. Made a call to the manufacturing company and confirmed it was synthetic. The swab was rayon. Dr Highland does not seem to mention it for her lab.
If using WADDL you can go to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (WADDL) wedsite, go to "forms", then "General WADDL Accession Form". Print this form and fill it out. You will need to write MOVI on the line for "other". The nasal swab is done by a method called PCR the blood test is ELISA. The website has this note attached.
'Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (cELISA) - serology testing temporarily delayed. PCR testing for M. ovi is still available. Contact the lab with any questions."
Avoid doing the test late in the week, on a weekend, or a holiday. If you do it on Monday or Tuesday it will get to the lab in a timely manner and avoid sitting around on a weekend.
I had the form and mailing box ready to go when the test was done and dropped it at the post office that day.

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